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International Relations (IR) studies the relationships among countries, the roles of sovereign states, inter-governmental organizations (IGO) (INGO), non-governmental organizations(NGO), including multinational corporations (MNC). International relations is a scholarly and a civic policy area and is usually constructive and it creates standards because it analyzes and creates the foreign policy of a given country. Regarding the study of political activities, international relations started from the time of the Greek historian Thucydides (ca. 460–395 BC), and, in the early 20th century, became a separate academic field within political circles. However, international relations involve several different fields of study. What is explicitly recognized as international relations theory was not developed until after World War I.
Besides political science, the field of international relations takes research materials from the areas of technology and engineering, economics, history, and international geography, international, philosophy, and social work, sociology, anthropology, and criminology including psychology and gender studies, cultural studies and cultural aspects. The range of international relations encompasses globalization, state sovereignty, and international security ecological sustainability, nuclear proliferation, and nationalism, development and global finance, terrorism including organized crime, human security, foreign interventionism and human rights.
Between 1500 to 1789 began the rise of the independent, autonomous states and the institutionalization of diplomacy and armies gave rise to a discipline that studied this phenomenon if maintaining relations with other countries. The Revolutions further added to this novel thought that not princes or a selected group of people but the citizenry of a state, defined as the nation, should be defined as sovereign. Such a state in which the nation is sovereign would thence be termed a nation-state. The term republic increasingly became it’s the preferred concept of a nation state. A different model of the nation-state was created as a reaction to the French republican concept by the Germans and others, who instead of giving the citizenry sovereignty preferred to keep it a monarchy.
They defined nation-statehood in cultural characteristic terms, establishing very rare if ever fulfilled ideal that all people speaking one language should belong to one state only. A similar claim to sovereignty was made for all forms of the nation-state. The particular European system of the sovereign equality of states was exported to the Americas, Africa, and Asia via colonialism and the “standards of civilization”. The current international system was finally established through decolonization during the Cold War. However, this is somewhat over-simplified. While the nation-state system is considered “contemporary “, many states have not implemented the system and are termed “pre-modern”. Further, a handful of states have moved beyond the concept of full sovereignty and are considered to be “post-modern”. The ability of contemporary IR discourse to explain the relations of these different types of states is usually disputed.
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